Здесь можно посмотреть пропись для лечения
рака с помощью женьшеня, опубликованную
в брошюре "Женьшень - корень жизни" издательства РИПОЛ-классик, М., 2005г.
Фёдор Цыпулин, Краснодарский край, ст.Динская, сообщает:
Как мне удалось вылечить 80-летнего деда от рака лёгкого: ко мне обратилась родня этого деда с просьбой помочь, от самого деда они скрыли, что у того обнаружена раковая опухоль в лёгком. Чтобы поддержать деда, я прописал ему по 25 капель настойки калужского женьшеня, по переносимости увеличил разовую дозу до 40 капель, и так на протяжении шести месяцев, без перерывов. Никакого другого специфического лечения не проводилось, но через полгода женьшенетерапии опухоли в лёгком не осталось.
Два корейских профессора
поясняют механизм противораковой активности женьшеня
Preventive effect of ginseng intake against various human cancers: a
case-control study on 1987 pairs.
Yun TK, Choi SY
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1995 Jun 4:4 401-8
This study presents the risk of various cancers in relation to ginseng intake based on the data from a case-control study conducted in the Korea Cancer Center Hospital. Ginseng intakers had a decreased risk [odds ratio = 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.44-0.58] for cancer compared with nonintakers. On the type of ginseng, the odds ratios for cancer were 0.37 (95% CI = 0.29-0.46) for fresh ginseng extract intakers, 0.57 (95% CI = 0.48-0.68) for white ginseng extract intakers, 0.30 (95% CI = 0.22-0.41) for white ginseng powder intakers, and 0.20 (95% CI = 0.08-0.50) for red ginseng intakers. Intakers of fresh ginseng slice, fresh ginseng juice, and white ginseng tea, however, showed no decreasing risk. There was a decrease in risk with the rising frequency and duration of ginseng intake, showing a dose-response relationship. On the site of cancer, the odds ratios were 0.47 for cancer of the lip, oral cavity, and pharynx; 0.20 for esophageal cancer; 0.36 for stomach cancer; 0.42 for colorectal cancer; 0.48 for liver cancer; 0.22 for pancreatic cancer; 0.18 for laryngeal cancer; 0.55 for lung cancer; and 0.15 for ovarian cancer. In cancers of the female breast, uterine cervix, urinary bladder, and thyroid gland, however, there was no association with ginseng intake. In cancers of the lung, lip, oral cavity and pharynx, and liver, smokers with ginseng intake showed decreased odds ratios compared with smokers without ginseng intake. These findings support the view that ginseng intakers had a decreased risk for most cancers compared with nonintakers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
ПЕРЕВОД ПРЕДЫДУЩЕГО РЕФЕРАТА:
употребления женьшеня против различных видов
рака у человека: изучение 1987 контрольных пар.
Yun TK, Choi SY
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1995 июнь 4:4 401-8
(перевод - В.С.Х., редактор - В.А. Болибок)
В исследовании представлена оценка снижения риска заболевания различными видами рака в связи с употреблением женьшеня, которое проведено в Центральном онкологическом госпитале Ю.Кореи методом контрольных пар (метод "случай-контроль").
Лица, употреблявшие женьшень, имели меньший риск заболевания раком [шансы = 0.50, при доверительной вероятности 95 % и интервале (CI) = 0.44-0.58], по сравнению с лицами, не употреблявшими женьшень (их шанс в данном исследовании принят за 1,0 - прим. ред.)
В зависимости от вида женьшеня шансы заболеть раком были 0.37 (95 % CI = 0.29-0.46) для употреблявших экстракт из свежего женьшеня, 0.57 (95 % CI = 0.48-0.68) для употреблявших экстракт из белого женьшеня, 0.30 (95 % CI = 0.22-0.41) для употреблявших порошок белого женьшеня, и 0.20 (95 % CI = 0.08-0.50) для употреблявших красный женьшень. Для употреблявших кусочки свежего женьшеня, сок свежего женьшеня, и чай из белого женьшеня, не было отмечено однако никакого уменьшения риска.
Обнаружен дозо-зависимый эффект - с увеличением длительности и частоты употребления женьшеня было отмечено уменьшение риска заболевания раком.
По локализациям рака, шансы были 0.47 для рака губы, полости рта, и глотки; 0.20 для рака пищевода; 0.36 для рака желудка; 0.42 для рака прямой кишки; 0.48 для рака печени; 0.22 для рака поджелудочной железы; 0.18 для рака гортани; 0.55 для рака легкого; и 0.15 для рака яичников.
Для рака груди у женщин, шейки матки, мочевого пузыря, и щитовидной железы не отмечено однако какой-либо связи с употреблением женьшеня.
У курильщиков, употреблявших женьшень, отмечено снижение шансов заболеть раком легкого, губы, печени, полости рта и глотки, по сравнению с курильщиками, не употреблявшими женьшень.
Эти результаты подтверждают, что употреблявшие женьшень лица имели меньший риск заболеть большинством видов рака по сравнению с не употреблявшими женьшень.
(перевод на русский язык следующих рефератов будет выполнен в будущем)
Non-organ specific cancer prevention of ginseng: a prospective study in Korea.
Yun TK, Choi SY
Int J Epidemiol 1998 Jun 27:3 359-64
BACKGROUND: A number of studies have reported that increased consumption of natural products reduced the risk of cancer. Our previous case-control studies have shown a significant reduction in the risk of cancer development among those who regularly consumed ginseng. We conducted a prospective cohort study to evaluate the preventive effect of ginseng against cancer on a population residing in a ginseng cultivation area on the basis of the result of case-control studies. METHODS: This study was conducted in Kangwha-eup from August 1987 to December 1992. We studied 4634 people over 40 years old who completed a questionnaire on ginseng intake. In an attempt to obtain detailed information about ginseng intake, we asked them to specify their age at initial intake, their frequency and duration of ginseng intake, the kind of ginseng, etc. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) when controlling simultaneously for covariates. RESULTS: Ginseng consumers had a decreased risk (RR = 0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] : 0.28-0.56) compared with non-consumers. On the type of ginseng, the RR was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.13-0.74) for fresh ginseng extract consumers and 0.34 (95% CI: 0.20-0.53) for consumers of multiple combinations. There was no cancer death among 24 red ginseng consumers. There was a decreased risk with a rise in the frequency of ginseng intake, showing a dose-response relationship. The RR of ginseng consumers were 0.33 (95% CI: 0.18-0.57) in gastric cancer and 0.30 (95% CI : 0.14-0.65) in lung cancer. Among ginseng preparations, fresh ginseng extract consumers were significantly associated with a decreased risk of gastric cancer (RR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.12-0.88). CONCLUSIONS: These results strongly suggest that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has non-organ specific preventive effect against cancer, providing support for the previous case-control studies
A case-control study of ginseng intake and cancer.
Yun TK, Choi SY
Int J Epidemiol 1990 Dec 19:4 871-6
The effect of ginseng consumption on the risk of cancer was investigated by interviewing 905 pairs of cases and controls matched by age, sex, and date of admission to the Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul, Korea. Of the 905 cases 562 (62%) had a history of ginseng intake compared to 674 of the 905 controls (75%) a statistically significant difference (p less than 0.01). The odds ratio (OR) of cancer in relation to ginseng intake was 0.56 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45-0.69). Ginseng extract and powder were shown to be more effective than fresh sliced ginseng, the juice, or tea in reducing the OR. Odds ratios for decreasing levels of ginseng intake were 1.00, 0.58, 0.43 and 0.25 for males and 1.00, 0.81, 0.56 and 0.52 for females. A trend test showed a significant decrease in proportion of cancer cases with increasing frequency of intake for males (p less than 10(-5)) as well as for females (p less than 0.05). Chi-square homogeneity tests also confirmed significant differences between cases and controls for both sexes (p less than 10(-3)). The reliability of recall for ginseng use was assessed by interviewing 180 randomly-selected subjects twice using the same questionnaire. The overall agreement in reported ginseng use between the two interviews was 0.85, and the Kappa value was 0.71 (p less than 0.01). These results strongly support the hypothesis of preventive effects of ginseng on cancer suggested by earlier animal studies.
Update from Asia. Asian studies on cancer chemoprevention.
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1999 889 157-92
In Asia, nontoxic dietary products are considered desirable primary prevention vehicles for conquering cancer. As early as 1978, investigators in Korea carried out extensive long-term anticarcinogenicity experiments using the mouse lung tumor model and observed an anticarcinogenic effect of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer extract in 1980. The results showed that natural products can provide hope for human cancer prevention. A newly established nine-week medium-term model using mouse lung tumors (Yun's model) could confirm the anticarcinogenicity of ginseng that varies according to its type and age. Subsequently, the ginseng was shown by epidemiological studies to be a nonorgan-specific cancer preventive agent associated with a dose-response relationship. The anticarcinogenic effects of vegetarian foods common at every dining table in Korea and some synthetics were also studied using Yun's nine-week model. In brief, ascorbic acid, soybean lecithin, capsaicin, biochanin A, Ganoderma lucidum, caffeine, and a novel synthetic 2-(allylthio)pyrazine decrease the incidence of mouse lung tumors, whereas fresh ginseng (4 years old), carrot, spinach, Sesamum indicum, beta-carotene, and 13-cis retinoic acid do not. This result regarding beta-carotene is consistent with the ineffective findings of the ATBC trial, the CARET trial, and the Physicians' Health Study. In 1983, a cancer chemoprevention study group was first established in Japan. Subsequently, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, cryptoporic acid E, and sarcophytol A from natural products, and synthetic acyclic retinoid and canventol were shown to be anticarcinogenic or chemopreventive in human subjects. Despite the frequent consumption of tea wordwide as a beverage and current experimental evidence of anticarcinogenesis, including controversial results of epidemiological studies, more systematic clinical trials for confirmation of preventive activity of tea against cancer are needed. Placebo-controlled intervention trials of dietary fiber are under study in Japan. In the past decade, new triterpenoids were isolated from various natural sources, and its biological activities were investigated in Asia. In the late 1970s a comprehensive chemoprevention program was established at the Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Since then, many retinoid compounds have been synthesized and screened in the search for chemopreventive cancer agents. The National Cancer Institute (USA) and China are jointly engaged in the two-nutrition intervention in Linxian, China. The results of joint study of the general population and of dysplasia in China should stimulate further research to clarify the potential benefits of micronutrient supplements. We need to clarify if there is a connection between the lower rates of cancer mortality in Korea and the frequent consumption of anticarcinogenic vegetables or traditional foods, including ginseng and Ganoderma lucidum. The constituents of the nontoxic stable dietary products promise to be the future hope for conquering cancers in the coming years.
Cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic activities of red ginseng.
Xiaoguang C, Hongyan L, Xiaohong L, Zhaodi F, Yan L, Lihua T, Rui H
J Ethnopharmacol 1998 Feb 60:1 71-8
Red ginseng extract A and B are the active components of Panax ginseng. Red ginseng is a classical traditional Chinese medicine. Among Chinese herbs, red ginseng has been considered as one of the tonics. Many studies indicated that red ginseng could enhance immune function of the human body. The effects of red ginseng extracts on transplantable tumors, proliferation of lymphocyte, two-stage model and rat liver lipid peroxidation were studied. In a two-stage model, red ginseng extracts had a significant cancer chemoprevention. At 50-400 mg/kg, they could inhibit DMBA/Croton oil-induced skin papilloma in mice, decrease the incidence of papilloma, prolong the latent period of tumor occurrence and reduce tumor number per mouse in a dose-dependent manner. Red ginseng extract B could effectively inhibit the Fe2+/cysteine-induced lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsome, suggesting that red ginseng extract B has a stronger antioxidative effect than that of extract A. The results indicated that red ginseng extracts (50 approximately 400 mg/kg) could significantly inhibit the growth of transplantable mouse sarcoma S180 and melanoma B16. Red ginseng extracts A (0.5 mg/ml) and B (0.1 and 0.25 mg/ml) might effectively promote the transformation of T lymphocyte, but there was no influence on lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by concanavalin A. This suggests that red ginseng extracts have potent tumor therapeutic activity and improve the cell immune system.
Saponin contents and anticarcinogenic effects of ginseng depending on types and ages in mice.
Yun TK, Lee YS, Kwon HY, Choi KJ
Chung Kuo Yao Li Hsueh Pao 1996 Jul 17:4 293-8
AIM: To compare the anticarcinogenic effects of fresh, white, and red ginseng (Panax ginseng C A Meyer) roots and their saponins. METHODS: Lung adenoma in newborn N:GP (S) mice was induced by a subcutaneous injection of benzo(a)pyrene 0.5 mg. After weaning, ginseng powders or extracts were given in the drinking water for 6 wk. In the 9th wk the incidence and multiplicity of lung adenoma were counted. RESULTS: Anticarcinogenic effects were found in 6-year-dried fresh ginseng, 5- and 6-year white ginseng, and 4-, 5-, and 6-year-red ginseng powders. Anticarcinogenic effects were also found in 6-year-dried fresh ginseng, 5- and 6-year-white ginseng, and 4-, 5-, and 6-year-red ginseng extracts. The content of major ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1 showed a little higher tendency in fresh or white ginsengs than red ginseng. This tendency was increased as the cultivation ages were increased. But there was no relationship was found between ginsenoside contents and preparation types or cultivation ages. CONCLUSION: Long-cultivated ginseng and red ginseng contain a higher amount of anticarcinogenic components.
Anticarcinogenic effect of long-term oral administration of red ginseng on newborn mice exposed to various chemical carcinogens.
Yun TK, Yun YS, Han IW
Cancer Detect Prev 1983 6:6 515-25
This investigation was carried out to evaluate the effects of ginseng in inhibition or prevention of carcinogenesis induced by various chemical carcinogens. Korean red ginseng was administered orally to the newborn mice. 9, 10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA), urethane, and aflatoxin B1 were injected in subscapular region of ICR mice within 24 hr after birth. Controls comprised three groups of ICR newborn mice: normal, (100) ginseng, (200), and vehicle (316). The six experimental groups of ICR newborn mice comprised DMBA (101), DMBA combined with ginseng (103), urethane (94), urethane combined with ginseng (92), aflatoxin B1 (50), and aflatoxin B1 combined with ginseng (47). The mice were autopsied immediately following sacrifice. All major organs were examined grossly and weighed. Histopathological examinations were also made. In the group sacrificed at 48 weeks after the treatment with DMBA (DMBA combined with ginseng extract), the average diameter of the largest lung adenomas decreased by 23%. The incidence of diffuse pulmonary infiltration decreased by 63%, and the average lung weight of male mice decreased by 21%. In the group sacrificed at 28 weeks after the treatment (urethane combined with ginseng), there was a 22% decrease (P less than 0.05) in the incidence of lung adenoma. In the group sacrificed at 56 weeks after birth (aflatoxin B1 combined with ginseng), there were decreases in the incidence of lung adenoma (29%) and hepatoma (75%) (P less than 0.05). These findings indicate that the prolonged administration of Korean red ginseng extract inhibited the incidence and also the proliferation of tumors induced by DMBA, urethane, and aflatoxin B1.
Asian studies of cancer chemoprevention: latest clinical results.
Eur J Cancer 2000 Jun 36:10 1303-9
Chemoprevention trials in Asia, including those already completed and those now ongoing, are reviewed. Information was mainly collected from Japan, Korea and China. Each country features its own characteristics. Cancer chemoprevention trials targeting, from various aspects, hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer and colon cancer have been, and are now being, conducted in Japan. Japan also has a long history of basic carcinogenesis research and carcinogenic research using animal experiments. In Korea, ginseng is the main focus of studies of chemopreventive agents. A large body of information has been collected and prospective studies are also ongoing. In China, the Linxian study, a cooperative study participated in by China and the NCI of the USA, is well known and the results impressive. However, we must exercise caution because, for example, the population of Linxian are chronically deficient in multiple vitamins and trace minerals. This situation may, therefore, differ from that observed in other countries. In any event, chemoprevention studies will be popular from an economical point of view even in Asia because cancer is becoming the number one cause of death in these countries.
Panax (ginseng)--panacea or placebo? Molecular and cellular basis of its pharmacological activity.
Ong YC, Yong EL
Ann Acad Med Singapore 2000 Jan 29:1 42-6
INTRODUCTION: The use of ethnobotanical drugs amongst Asians as complementary medicine is prevalent and is also gaining increasing popularity in the West. The most well-known herb traditionally used as a drug is the root of the ginseng species. There are many traditional and anecdotal claims to the therapeutic properties of ginseng. In recent years, there have been systematic efforts to analyse the bioactivities of ginseng saponins. METHODS: A comprehensive review of published literature covering molecular and cellular research as well as animal and human studies on ginseng and its derivatives. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Current published data would serve as a framework to understand the pharmacology of ginseng in its entirety, from its molecular action to actual therapeutic effects observed in human use. A new paradigm is emerging whereby the pharmacological effects of traditional herbs such as ginseng can be understood in the light of their polyvalent actions as demonstrated by ginseng saponins with their positive anti-mutagenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes and neurovascular effects. With increasing understanding, evidence-based incorporation of traditional herbs as complementary medicine into mainstream medical science can be achieved in the near future.
How useful are unconventional cancer treatments?
Ernst E, Cassileth BR
Eur J Cancer 1999 Oct 35:11 1608-13
Unconventional cancer treatments are used frequently. Therefore, oncologists need to know about them. This article gives an overview of current knowledge on the most prevalent complementary or alternative cancer therapies. A distinction is made between alleged cures, preventive and adjunctive measures. Shark cartilage, mistletoe, thymus therapy, essiac, hydrazine sulphate, 714-X, dietary regimens, green tea and Panax ginseng are all covered specifically. None of these treatments offer reasonable hope for a cure. Some strategies are promising in terms of cancer prevention. The true potential of unconventional therapies might lie in adjunctive and palliative care. It is concluded that good evidence in this area is scarce. Vis-a-vis the high prevalence of unconventional cancer treatments, rigorous investigations are mandatory, not least for increasing the safety of future patients.
Inhibition of oxidative DNA damage, 8-OHdG, and carbonyl contents in smokers treated with antioxidants (vitamin E, vitamin C, beta-carotene and red ginseng).
Lee BM, Lee SK, Kim HS
Cancer Lett 1998 Oct 23 132:1-2 219-27
The chemopreventive effects of antioxidants (vitamin E, beta-carotene, vitamin C and red ginseng) on oxidative DNA and protein (globin) damages were comparatively investigated in the peripheral blood of smokers (> or = 20 cigarettes/day). Smokers showed a lower baseline level of plasma micronutrients (vitamin C and beta-carotene) (P < 0.01) and higher baseline level of oxidative DNA or protein damage than non-smokers (N = 5; P < 0.05). During daily supplementation of antioxidants (200 IU vitamin of E, 9 mg of beta-carotene, 500 mg of vitamin C, or 1.8 g of red ginseng) for 4 weeks, smokers plasma antioxidant concentrations increased linearly, while their mean levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and carbonyl contents decreased compared with those in smokers supplemented with a placebo (P < 0.05). Levels of urinary and plasma cotinine remained steady in smokers regardless of supplementation with antioxidants. 8-OHdG and carbonyl content decreased in a time-dependent manner (as the total intake dose increased) after supplementation with vitamin E (8-OHdG, 33.8%; carbonyl content, 43.6%) or red ginseng (8-OHdG, 31.7%; carbonyl content, 21.3%). These preliminary data suggest that supplementation with antioxidants might protect smokers from oxidative damages and could reduce cancer risk or other diseases caused by free radicals associated with smoking.
Influence of ginseng upon the development of liver cancer induced by diethylnitrosamine in rats.
Wu XG, Zhu DH
J Tongji Med Univ 1990 10:3 141-5, 133
The influence of ginseng upon the development of liver cancer induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in rats was observed with histochemical methods and microscopy. The incidence of liver cancer was 14.3% in the experimental group and 100% in the control group, with the difference being statistically significant. Degeneration and necrosis of the hepatocytes in the experimental group were milder than in the control group. Histochemical studies also revealed that the activity of SDH, 5'-NT and gamma-GT, and the amounts of DNA, RNA and glycogen in the experimental group were maintained at relatively normal level, and decreased or increased in the control group. The results obtained in our experimental studies indicated that the ginseng seems to play a role of protecting the hepatocyte from injury by DEN, thereby inhibiting the development of liver cancer induced by DEN.
Induction of apoptosis by a novel intestinal metabolite of ginseng saponin via cytochrome c-mediated activation of caspase-3 protease.
Lee SJ, Ko WG, Kim JH, Sung JH, Moon CK, Lee BH
Biochem Pharmacol 2000 Sep 1 60:5 677-85
Ginseng saponins exert various important pharmacological effects with regard to the control of many diseases including cancer. The novel intestinal bacterial metabolites of ginseng protopanaxadiol saponins have recently been found and isolated after the oral administration of ginseng extract in human and rats. 20-O-(beta-D-Glucopyranosyl)-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (IH-901) formed from ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, and Rc is of particular interest in cancer chemoprevention and treatment. We investigated the effects of IH-901 on the human myeloid leukemia cell line HL-60 in terms of inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. IH-901 showed a significant cytotoxic activity in HL-60 cells (IC(50) = 24. 3 microM) following a 96-hr incubation. Treatment of HL-60 cells with IH-901 resulted in the formation of internucleosomal DNA fragments. The dose- and time-dependent induction of apoptosis by IH-901 was demonstrated in sandwich enzyme immunoassay and the results were confirmed by flow cytometric analysis. Morphological examination of IH-901-treated samples showed cells with chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, and nuclear fragmentation, all typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. The treatment of HL-60 cells with IH-901 caused activation of caspase-3 protease and subsequent proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. IH-901 did not affect the expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 but did cause a release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytosol. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that IH-901 dramatically suppresses HL-60 cell growth by inducing programed cell death through activation of caspase-3 protease, which occurs via mitochondrial cytochrome c release independently of Bcl-2 modulation. These results may provide a pivotal mechanism for the use of IH-901 in the prevention and treatment of leukemia.
Effect of petroleum ether extract of Panax ginseng roots on proliferation and cell cycle progression of human renal cell carcinoma cells.
Sohn J, Lee CH, Chung DJ, Park SH, Kim I, Hwang WI
Exp Mol Med 1998 Mar 31 30:1 47-51
Panax ginseng roots have long been used as a medicinal herb in oriental countries. We have investigated anti-proliferative effects of lipid soluble Panax ginseng components on human renal cancer cell lines. Petroleum ether extract of Panax ginseng roots (GX-PE) or its partially purified preparation (7:3 GX) was added to cultures of three human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines, A498, Caki-1, and CURC II. Proliferation of RCC cells was estimated by a [3H]thymidine incorporation assay and cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry. GX-PE, 7:3 GX, panaxydol and panaxynol inhibited proliferation of all three RCC cell lines in a dose dependent manner in vitro with an order of potency, 7:3 GX > panaxydol > panaxynol = GX-PE. Additive effect of interleukin 4 was also demonstrated, most prominently in Caki-1 which responded poorly to GX-PE alone. Analysis of cell cycle in CURC II and Caki-1 treated with GX-PE demonstrated increase in G1 phase population and corresponding decrease in S phase population. The present study demonstrated that proliferation of human RCC cell lines were inhibited by lipid soluble components of Panax ginseng roots by blocking cell cycle progression at G1 to S phase transition.
Research and development of cancer chemopreventive agents in China.
J Cell Biochem Suppl 1997 27 7-11
Since the late 1970s, a comprehensive search for cancer chemopreventive agents has been established in our Institute. A series of new retinoids have been synthesized and screened on the basis of established methodologies of experimental chemoprevention in vitro as well as in vivo. Pharmacological studies demonstrated that N-4-(carboxyphenyl)retinamide (RII) induces cell differentiation of HL-60 cells and inhibits dimethylnitrosamine-induced carcinogenesis of the forestomach in mice, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced papilloma in mouse skin, and DMBA-induced carcinogenesis of the buccal pouch in Syrian golden hamsters. It significantly promoted lymphoblastic transformation and activated macrophages. In further studies, RII significantly inhibited ornithine decarboxylase activity. After 6 months of chronic toxicological studies in rats and dogs, RII was recommended for clinical trial. Phase II studies found that RII is effective in treating oral and vulvar leukoplakia. It is also effective in treating myelodysplastic syndrome and dysplasia of uterine cervix. The chalcone retinoidal compounds were discovered when the search for new retinoids with less toxicity and higher potency led to third-generation retinoids, which were synthesized and screened. Structure-activity relationship studies found that 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-methoxy-4-carboxyl chalcone (R9158) is the most active inhibitor of a variety of cancer cells. It has no effect on the Colony Forming Unit-Granulocyte/Macrophage (CFU-GM) of bone marrow in mice. In in vivo studies, R9158 showed a remarkable inhibition of chondrosarcoma in rats. It had no cross-resistance to vincristine, but was cross-resistant to all-trans retinoic acid. Red ginseng, a processed Panax ginseng, is considered a typical tonic in traditional Chinese medicine. Our studies demonstrated that red ginseng extract inhibited DMBA-induced skin papilloma significantly. Experiments showed that glycyrrhetinic acid inhibited croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. It also inhibited epidermal ornithine decarboxylase as well as the rapid DNA damage induced by the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Our pharmacological studies demonstrated that Chinese gallotannin inhibited the malignant transformation of B[a]P-induced V79 cells in vitro and B[a]P-induced pulmonary adenoma in A/J mice in vivo significantly.
Modulation of programmed cell death by medicinal plants.
Thatte U, Bagadey S, Dahanukar S
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2000 Feb 46:1 199-214
Programmed cell death (apoptosis), a form of cell death, described by Kerr and Wyllie some 20 years ago, has generated considerable interest in recent years. The mechanisms by which this mode of cell death (seen both in animal and plant cells), takes place have been examined in detail. Extracellular signals and intracellular events have been elaborated. Of interest to the clinician, is the concentrated effort to study pharmacological modulation of programmed cell death. The attempt to influence the natural phenomenon of programmed cell death stems from the fact that it is reduced (like in cancer) or increased (like in neurodegenerative diseases) in several clinical situations. Thus, chemicals that can modify programmed cell death are likely to be potentially useful drugs. From foxglove, which gave digitalis to the Pacific Yew from which came taxol, plants have been a source of research material for useful drugs. Recently, a variety of plant extracts have been investigated for their ability to influence the apoptotic process. This article discusses some of the interesting data. The ability of plants to influence programmed cell death in cancerous cells in an attempt to arrest their proliferation has been the topic of much research. Various cell-lines like HL60, human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (KIM-1), a cholangiocarcinoma cell-line (KMC-1), B-cell hybridomas, U937 a monocytic cell-line, HeLa cells, human lymphoid leukemia (MOLT-4B) cells and K562 cells have been studied. The agents found to induce programmed cell death (measured either morphologically or flow cytometrically) included extracts of plants like mistletoe and Semicarpus anacardium. Isolated compounds like bryonolic acid (from Trichosanthes kirilowii var. Japonica, crocin (from saffron) and allicin (from Allium sativum) have also been found to induce programmed cell death and therefore arrest proliferation. Even Chinese herbal medicine ''Sho-saiko-to'' induces programmed cell death in selected cancerous cell lines. Of considerable interest is the finding that Panax ginseng prevents irradiation-induced programmed cell death in hair follicles, suggesting important therapeutic implications. Nutraceuticals (dietary plants) like soya bean, garlic, ginger, green tea, etc. which have been suggested, in epidemiological studies, to reduce the incidence of cancer may do so by inducing programmed cell death. Soy bean extracts have been shown to prevent development of diseases like polycystic kidneys, while Artemisia asiatica attenuates cerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats. Interestingly enough, a number of food items as well as herbal medicines have been reported to produce toxic effects by inducing programmed cell death. For example, programmed cell death in isolated rat hepatocytes has been implicated in the hepatitis induced by a herbal medicine containing diterpinoids from germander. Other studies suggest that rapid progression of the betel- and tobacco-related oral squamous cell carcinomas may be associated with a simultaneous involvement of p53 and c-myc leading to inhibition of programmed cell death. Several mechanisms have been identified to underlie the modulation of programmed cell death by plants including endonuclease activation, induction of p53, activation of caspase 3 protease via a Bcl-2-insensitive pathway, potentiate free-radical formation and accumulation of sphinganine. Programmed cell death is a highly conserved mechanism of self-defense, also found to occur in plants. Hence, it is natural to assume that chemicals must exist in them to regulate programmed cell death in them. Thus, plants are likely to prove to be important sources of agents that will modulate programmed cell death.
Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies.
Klepser TB, Klepser ME
Am J Health Syst Pharm 1999 Jan 15 56:2 125-38; quiz 139-41
Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies are discussed. The use of herbal therapies is on the rise in the United States, but most pharmacists are not adequately prepared educationally to meet patients' requests for information on herbal products. Pharmacists must also cope with an environment in which there is relatively little regulation of herbal therapies by FDA. Many herbs have been identified as unsafe, including borage, calamus, coltsfoot, comfrey, life root, sassafras, chaparral, germander, licorice, and ma huang. Potentially safe herbs include feverfew, garlic, ginkgo, Asian ginseng, saw palmetto, St. John's wort, and valerian. Clinical trials have been used to evaluate feverfew for migraine prevention and rheumatoid arthritis; garlic for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and infections; ginkgo for circulatory disturbances and dementia; ginseng for fatigue and cancer prevention; and saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Also studied in formal trials have been St. John's wort for depression and valerian for insomnia. The clinical trial results are suggestive of efficacy of some herbal therapies for some conditions. German Commission E, a regulatory body that evaluates the safety and efficacy of herbs on the basis of clinical trials, cases, and other scientific literature, has established indications and dosage recommendations for many herbal therapies. Pharmacists have a responsibility to educate themselves about herbal therapies in order to help patients discern the facts from the fiction, avoid harm, and gain what benefits may be available.
[Regazell-Energen: bioactivator in tumor treatment? Documentation No. 26 D]
Hauser SP, Allewelt MC
Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 1996 Dec 17 85:51-52 1652-5
Regazell-Energen (RE) is a combination of drinking vials which contain gelee royale, ginseng, hawthorn, wheatgerm extract solved in mead, and capsules filled with mixed pollen. RE is recommended for revitalization and regeneration, regulation and stimulation of the immune system and in the early metaphylaxis of treated cancer patients. Two courses during 40 days per year should be taken. RE has practically no side effects. Only individuals with pollen allergy or alcohol intolerance should be cautious. A package for a 14-day course costs 170 Swiss francs. RE is produced by Bio-Naturkraft in Poing, Munich, and research is supported by the German Society for Matrix Research. The president is Prof. H. Heine from the Institute of Anatomy of the anthroposophic University Witten-Herdecke. The bioactivator RE ist claimed to be a 'new, autonomous therapeutic system' to 'increase physical and mental well-being ... helping to overcome stress and immune defects'. Heine claims that RE acts decisively on the 'regulation of the matrix' and fights cancer by activating the fibroblast-macrophage system via the healthy tissue. The three clinical investigations on the effect of RE in the oncological aftercare contain severe flaws in the collection of data and interpretation.
A new medical trend in China.
Am J Chin Med 1975 Jul 3:3 213-21
Chinese biomedical scientists are now developing a new approach to medicine by combining traditional Chinese medicine and Western biomedical science. This is the current medical trend in China. Some significant results have already been achieved. For instance, in treating fractures the traditional dexterity in coaxing broken ends of bones into alignment has been successfully adopted, and x-ray has been used to check whether there was accurate bone union. Heart diseases are treated with Western drugs in combination with Chinese herbal medicine, and the results are encouraging. Ancient theories such as Fu Chen Pei Ben (to strengthen the patient's vitality) are applied, for instance, in cancer therapy, i.e., to stimulate the patient's appetite and to improve his general condition with herbs while being treated with Western anti-cancer remedies. However, the Chinese admit that this process has only just begun.
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